If taxes are not showing on your store that is probably because they are not enabled and set up. There are a couple different ways you can do this. You can import a document if you already have your taxes and rates set up or you can manually set up the taxes.
The screenshots below and the links help with setting up canadian taxes.
This link is to the magento instructions to set up taxes rates and rules.
This link is for the wikipedia page showing the taxes for the different provinces in Canada
First you will navigate to Sales > Tax > Manage tax zones and rates
This will bring you to the following page where you can select add new tax rate
The next page is where you will configure your tax rate. This shot shows the Alberta GST tax rate. Alberta only has this tax rate unlike BC that has the GST and the PST taxes.
After you have completed creating your tax rates then you will navigate back to Sales > Tax > Manage tax rules
This will bring you to the following page where you can add new tax rule and configure it.
The following page shows the configuration for tax rules. Since some provinces only have GST and others have a combination GST+PST you will only put the GST rates in one rule, then the PST rates in another rule. The same goes with the HST and QST rules. You will see only the GST rates are selected in this configuration because this rule is only for the GST rates. When you create the PST rates and then the PST rule you will then only select the PST rates in the rules configuration.
Repeat the steps for the PST, HST and QST rates and rules.
Please wait... it will take a second!